Men's magazines I:
Men's magazines II (go there ):
- Loaded defines the lads' magazine
- The rise of FHM
- Table: Men's magazines by mid-1996
Men's magazines III (go there ):
- The advent of women
- A maturing men's magazine market
- Taking over the world
- Into the digital world
- Table: Men's magazines: details and sales
Men's magazines IV (go there ):
- IPC and Emap gear up
- Nuts - 'the world's first men's weekly'
- Emap follows with Zoo Weekly
- Building a new market -Cut and KO!
- Decline sets in
- A free way forward
The Gentleman's Magazine is often considered the first modern magazine. See the Internet Library of Early Journals for scans of this and other early titles
Early evolution Back to topMen's magazines have existed for centuries. In terms of identifying the first one, it depends on how the terms 'magazine' and 'journal' are defined. Certainly journals, in the sense of discussing and communicating scientific matters, were around first; the question is: when did some of them split off to become magazines? The 1663 German publication Erbauliche Monaths-Unterredungen (Edifying Monthly Discussions) makes a claim as the world's first magazine. And, five years later, Giornale de' letterati di Roma, edited by Francesco Nazzari, is seen as the first Italian magazine. However, The Gentleman's Magazine is often considered the first modern magazine. It was published by Edward Cave (using the pen-name Sylvanus Urban) and printed at St John's Gate in London from 1731. It aimed to entertain, with essays, stories, poems and political comment (see details). In 1755, Samuel Johnson's Dictionary credited Cave as coining the term 'magazine' (which had previously meant a storehouse or arsenal) in its publishing sense: 'Of late this word has signified a miscellaneous pamphlet, from a periodical miscellany named the Gentleman's Magazine, by Edward Cave.' The magazine was published by Punch publisher Bradbury & Evans until 1907.
Many Victorian magazines were published for men. These included Gentleman's Magazine of Fashion, Fancy Clothes, Man about Town, Gentleman's Pictorial, The Gentleman (A Cosmopolitan Journal), County Gentleman and The Gentleman's Journal. Most focused on fashion, social life and the importance of being a gentleman.Many of these closed in 1914 with the advent of the first world war. However, Wide World, launched by George Newnes in 1898, was filled with 'true stories of peril and adventure' and survived until 1965.
Men Only in March 1958, still pocket-book sized: covers were colour illustrations, like this one of Rita Hayworth, or photographs
Men Only in June 1971: the first of the truly top-shelf Paul Raymond era
In 1935, Pearson launched the pocket men's magazine, Men Only (bound, 115x165mm). Its editorial strategy was clearly stated: 'We don't want women readers. We won't have women readers...' It sought 'bright articles on current male topics'. Pearson was taken over by Newnes, and Men Only, which had become mildly saucy, faded from the mid-1950s. (Interestingly, it was Men Only that published in the UK the pin-up illustrations by Alberto Vargas that appeared in US Esquire.) Newnes, in turn, became part of International Publishing Corporation in he early 1960s. Men Only was bought by Leonard Matthews (who had been nicknamed 'Napoleon of the Comics' as director of Fleetway Publications). He had left IPC to set up Martspress, which specialised mainly in comics and children's books, and Men Only was published by City Magazines Ltd in Fleet Street. It was mainly in black and white with a colour pin-up centre spread. In 1971, Matthews sold the title to Paul Raymond, who ran night-clubs in London's Soho district. He relaunched Men Only as the start of a 'top-shelf' publishing empire.
Back in 1937, Lilliput, a pocket magazine (stapled, 136x196mm), was put out by Stefan Lorant, who was later to create Picture Post, at Hulton Press. At sixpence, it was half the price of Men Only. It was intended for a general audience - subtitled 'The Pocket Magazine for Everyone' - but became a men's magazine after the second world war. It was a bestseller in its day, famous for its mix of photographs, reportage, cartoons and air-brushed nudes. In July 1960, it was merged into Men Only. Many issues have a page describing the contributors, who included people such as actor James Mason, Antonia White, Ronald Searle and Tom Driberg. The magazine cover was usually a cartoon in the 1940s and 1950s.
Other men's titles included London Opinion, which merged with Men Only in 1954, Blighty (the weekly 'National Humorous Magazine') and Razzle (which published 'the brightest cartoons of them all' according to the magazine cover).
In the US, Esquire was founded in 1933. It always stressed its intellectual side, but really established itself in the war years with its pin-up illustrations and calendars by Peruvian-born Alberto Vargas. The first fold-out pin-up appeared in October 1940 and his calendar that year sold 320,000 copies - by 1943 a million calendars had sold. (It was his work that inspired aircrews to paint women on the sides of their planes.) However, they fell out in 1946 and the magazine, which had persuaded him to sign his work as Varga, copyrighted that name to stop him using it. In 1957, Esquire spun off its Gentleman's Quarterly supplement, which was to end up in the hands of Condé Nast and overtake its parent in terms of sales. Esquire was bought by Hearst in 1986. Hugh Hefner's Playboy launched in 1953 in the US, selling for 50c. Marilyn Monroe was on the front cover and featured again, naked, inside. This thrived in the US and around the world.
In 1953, Esquire made its first attempt to launch a British edition, but this folded after six years of trying.
In the mid-1950s, all of the big men's magazines in the UK were in trouble because of the loss of advertising to television. Most of them were taken over by other titles or closed: Lilliput (Men Only, 1960); London Opinion (1954); Razzle (1954).
However, there was a resurgence from the mid-1960s with launches such as King, Penthouse and Club, building on the growth in products aimed at men. Conde Nast launched Men in Vogue in November 1965. However, it was only the top-shelf titles that thrived; Men Only limped on to be taken over by Paul Raymond, who developed a strategy of buying up failed titles such as Razzle. Paul Raymond built up his stable from Men Only to include Club and Escort. Richard Desmond's Northern & Shell/Portland group moved on from Penthouse into niches such as Asian Babes and Forty-Plus (Northern & Shell profile).
The model for mainstream men's magazines was Man About Town (see separate feature), an offshoot of the trade journal Tailor & Cutter. It was launched in 1952 by editor John Taylor. MAT mainly covered fashion but included other areas of lifestyle and became something of a cult publication. It counted such luminaries as Gerald Scarfe, Michael Heath, Calman, John Arlott, Raymond Postgate, Mark Boxer and Gilbert Harding among its contributors. It was sold in 1960 to Clive Labovitch and Michael Heseltine. As Cornmarket - later Haymarket (profile) - Publishing, this duo made a great success of weekly trade magazine Campaign, which forced the closure of market leader Advertisers' Weekly. MAT was later abbreviated to About Town and then Town. At one stage it became a quintessential 1960s magazine, under art director Tom Wolsey, helping to establish photographers such as Terence Donovan and Don McCullin. However, like IPC's Nova, it was not very profitable and closed in 1968.
The Writers' and Artists' Year Book of 1963 listed 70 'feminine' magazines (including nine from the Commonwealth and eight from the US), but just seven for men. Of these, four were aimed at tailors or the men's wear trade (Men's Wear, Outfitter, Style for Men and Tailor & Cutter), leaving Men Only, Town and Esquire (US) as consumer titles.
The advent of television as a national advertising medium and colour magazine supplements in newspapers, led by The Sunday Times in 1962, took away the advertising base for men's magazines in the UK, though the top-shelf industry, which did not rely on mainstream advertising, grew. In 1965, King from Europress arrived. According to an obituary of journalist John Sandilands in the Telegraph, this was launched by Paul Raymond: 'Raymond baled out after the first issue, and Peter Sellers, Bryan Forbes, Bob Monkhouse, David Frost and others were persuaded to invest to keep it going.' It ran colour nudes - though not on the magazine cover - but was swamped by the likes of Bob Guccione's Penthouse (also a 1965 launch) and was taken over by Mayfair (Paul Raymond, 1966) in 1967. IPC's Club tried to crack the men's market in 1970 but folded after 21 issues. The last issue noted: 'The shame is that Club's closing will probably make any other publisher wary of putting out a similar product for young men.' How true this was, with mainstream men's magazines disappearing for a decade.
Of course, men didn't stop reading magazines. They read about cars, sports, hobbies and businesses - and they read the likes of Mayfair, Penthouse and Playboy, Men Only and Club International. But, for some things, they turned to women's magazines. Cosmopolitan publisher the National Magazine Company noted that many men read their partner's magazine and in April 1978 tried a one-off edition of Cosmopolitan Man. This had French actress Aurore Clément and Jack Nicholson on the - rather crowded looking - cover and cost 50p. However, there were no more issues.
Magazines such as Men Only became synonomous with the phrase 'men's magazine'
The accepted wisdom Back to topBy 1980, and after the failure of IPC, Britain's largest magazine publisher, with Club, it was accepted wisdom that there was no market for a general interest men's title. Areas such as sport were well covered by the papers, and their magazine supplements, usually on a Sunday, but the Daily Telegraph had one on a Thursday. Men bought:
Brian Braithwaite, a former publishing director of National Magazines, has written in Campaign about how he tried to challenge the accepted wisdom. 'I was told quite positively in the mid-70s by the Men Who Must be Obeyed from America that men's magazines were a dead duck. My attempt to produce more than one edition of Cosmopolitan Man [with Paul Keers, who was later to head the launch of GQ, as editor] in 1978 was quashed by top management to make way for yet another women's title, Company.' ('The evolution of men's magazines,' Campaign, 11 April 1997, p3).
So the term 'men's magazines' came to mean top-shelf and pornographic titles. Many more of these were launched, focusing on smaller, and weirder, niches. In May 1982, Executive came along as a Playboy-style title 'For the man of today' from Fragilion with editor Brian Keogh, but failed.
However, in the mid-1980s, things were stirring. Many editors
and publishers found themselves at some stage discussing the
possibility of a general interest title for men over a pint
after work. It was a boom time, with champagne bars opening
all over the City of London. Men were staying single longer
and had more cash, particularly on clothes and toiletries.
They could turn to Viz for a laugh
(and did, its sales hitting almost a million), Q for music
and one of a dozen papers for sport and news. However, the
'new man' had nowhere to find fashion and grooming, and coverage
of sex and relationships in the women's weeklies
and glossies. 'Lifestyle' was becoming important, more men were
reading their partner's favourites, yet many did not want to be
seen with top-shelf magazines. So some titles began to explore
Sky Murdoch must have liked the name
Exploring the gap Back to top
By the mid-1980s, there was undoubtedly some kind of a market among men for a magazine. In fact, in terms of magazine history, there was a massive gap in that there were no general interest men's magazines. Men were addressed by newspaper supplements and supplements or special sections in the women's glossies, which found up to a quarter of their readers among men. The idea of Cosmopolitan Man was revived by NatMags as Cosmo Man and published as a section inside Cosmopolitan and as a banded supplement (produced by Paul Kerton and Paul Keers). Both Elle and Harpers & Queen had dedicated sections for men in each issue. The mainstream publisher that came closest to a launch at this time was probably Reed subsidiary Carlton, which first put out Options for Men as a supplement to women’s monthly Options in December 1984. Carlton's managing director was former Club editor Terry Hornett. Options for Men covered fashion, motoring, sport and entertainment. It was produced by Sally O'Sullivan, editor of women's monthly Options. The company had hopes of a standalone quarterly in 1985, though this did not come about. However, OM went out as a supplement three times in 1985 and 1986 and was quarterly in 1987, which led the company again to talk of a separate launch in 1989, but it did not see the light of day. Similarly, the National Magazines women's monthly Company ran a free supplement, Company for Men in 1979 and 1980.
So, none of the big publishing guns was able to get
to grips with the issue of men's lifestyle magazines. Instead,
it was left to a much smaller publisher, who acted by instinct
to make a move.
Men's lifestyle arrives Back to top
However, male readers who grew too old for The Face still had nowhere to go, so Logan thought up Arena as a quarterly, niche title, with a mix of fashion, fads and fiction, and again designed by Neville Brody. It hit the streets in 1986.
Peter Howarth, a later Arena editor, has said there was no conscious decision to make a male version of existing women's magazines. 'Nick Logan, launched The Face in 1980 because it was a magazine he wanted to read. But six years on he wanted to read a different magazine because he had moved on - as had all The Face readers - so he decided to do a men's magazine. It was never really a gap in the market; he just wanted to make the sort of magazine he wanted to read.'
Despite industry scepticism, Arena was an instant success, later editor Dylan Jones wrote in the Independent ('Men on a monthly cycle,' 18 June 1996, p18): 'When Arena launched in 1986, it caused a huge media stir, not only because it was the first general-interest magazine to be launched in the UK since the demise of Michael Heseltine's Town in the sixties, but because it was also launched at a time when any men's magazine that didn't rely on pornography was considered commercial suicide. But Nick Logan, the publishing wizard who had conquered the youth market with the NME, Smash Hits and The Face, proved everybody wrong. After six months, his brainchild was selling more than 50,000 copies. Launched on a wing and a prayer, it gained a circulation of more than 65,000 in its first year, proving that the Bermuda triangle of British publishing was nothing more than a myth.'
Yet, in November 1988, the strain of having a second title led Logan to sell 40 per cent of his company, Wagadon, to Vogue publisher Condé Nast. He said at the time: 'The magazines are still under our control. But the deal will allow us to grow at a natural pace, knowing there's a cushion of support under us. It also takes away the administrative burden, which has doubled since the launch of Arena.'
Arena was selling 66,500 copies an issue and
was a spur for Condé Nast to launch the British edition of GQ a
year later. However, Logan denied being formally involved.
Another attempt to crack the market was made by Excel in April 1988. However, its main coverline 'How to spot a bullshitter' led to its advertising being banned on the London Tube and the editorial mix under Rod Fountain was seen as too yuppy and it soon folded (although the title would be used again more than once in the next decade).
The plethora of top-shelf magazines led to a campaign against them, led by Labour party politician Clare Short (who was to become a minister in Tony Blair's government, until she fell out over the Iraq war and resigned in 2003).
The mainstream sector was given a boost by the arrival
of the big guns, first Condé Nast with GQ in
1989 and National Magazines' Esquire in 1991. Arena went bimonthly
just after GQ's launch (as a bimonthly) with sales of 70,000.
In the UK, GQ started out under editor Paul Keers with a straight interpretation of the US magazine's original name: Gentleman's Quarterly. Keers had formerly worked on Cosmo Man. His cover 'babe' was Conservative politician (and founder of publisher Haymarket) Michael Heseltine. (There was a certain irony here, given Heseltine's attempt to address the men's market almost 30 years earlier with Town.) The first issue sold 90,000 copies, suggesting a settle-down figure of about 63,000. The company's target was 50,000.
Most of Arena's readers were under 30, with GQ aiming for men in their mid- to late-thirties with enough money to attract top-quality advertisers.
Stephen Quinn, GQ's publisher, identified economic and political factors in making the launch possible: 'There are indications that the time and mood is right. Mrs Thatcher seems to have re-invented this enterprise culture in Britain that has led to a growth of business success which has required more professional men to service it.' The target readers would have more disposable cash to spend after the recent lowering of the top rate of income tax. Interestingly, Quinn had moved from National Magazine to Condé Nast in 1987 after a rumoured launch of Esquire in the UK had fallen through.
The Financial Times (‘Observer: Male Vogue’, 9 November 1988) reported that US GQ had 'had a little problem around 1980 when it flirted with the gay market, but a new publisher soon put a stop to that'. So Keers and Quinn went for a resolutely macho image. Getting it right was tricky, however. Keers argued that being super-macho wouldn't dissuade anyone from sampling the first issue but later felt that it was 'over masculine' with features on boxing, dog fighting and the Cresta Run. Although he added: 'It would have concerned us a great deal more if we'd been too effeminate.' Along with the fashion coverage, he was looking for gritty issues, such as testicular cancer and innocent men being accused of rape.
As well as having to avoid a gay stereotype, the men's titles had to avoid being seen as what had been up to then 'men's magazines' - the pornographic titles. So both Arena and GQ continued with men on the cover, including actors John Hurt and Terence Stamp, and high-achievers such as broadcaster John Birt, musician Peter Gabriel and writer Martin Amis.
By issue seven, GQ had its second editor, Alexandra Shulman and had gone monthly. It continued an all-male cover policy and cover lines had become more aggressive: a full-face image of Sean Connery was graced with the cover line 'Are you hard enough' (February 1991). Yet, a couple of months later, it ran what was probably the most boring men's magazine cover of all time - of Tory prime minister John Major (April 1991).
Meanwhile, For Him hardened up its editorial approach to compete in the expanding market and introduced a sports supplement. It went monthly and changed its name to FHM.
This coincided with the arrival of the next entrant: Esquire in March 1991 from Cosmopolitan publisher National Magazines. It was another US import with Lee Eisenberg as editor-in-chief and Alex Finer as editor. Unusually, it had a woman on the cover - a late-1950s photograph of Brigitte Bardot.
By mid-1993, the leading two were heading for 100,000 sales a month: GQ (94,084); Arena (90,790); Esquire (74,771); and FHM (no certified figure, but estimated at 60,000 under editor Francis Cottam). Competition for advertising came from newspaper supplements, such as The Sunday Times Magazine and the Daily Mail's You.
However, these were not lad's mags. They were refined
titles, upmarket and based on fashion, which could
not command broad appeal, in the way that Cosmopolitan and Marie
Claire could do among women. However,
lad's magazines, in the shape of James Brown's Loaded, were about to
arrive and change the history of men's magazines.